High-Level Languages

High-level languages are a major advancement in programming languages. High-level languages are much easier to use than assembly or machine languages, because they are designed to use a more English-like syntax. Some examples of high-level language statements are: (a) total = 1 + 3, and (b) name = “Ken”.

High-level languages promote platform independency, i.e., they can be executed on many different machine types. High-level languages might require the use of a compiler. A compiler is used to convert the high-level language code, into machine language (binary-based) code, that can be understood, and executed by the computer. Some high-level languages might require an interpreter, instead of a compiler. An interpreter, interprets the high-level programming code, line-by-line, as the code is executed. Interpreted languages are not compiled ahead of time.

Interpreted languages greatly increase platform-independency, because the programming code is converted to machine language code on the machine in which the program is executing, instead of being converted to machine language code on the programmer’s computer.

High-level programming languages can either be procedure-oriented or object-oriented.

Procedure-oriented Languages

Procedure-oriented languages concentrate on the major tasks that the program needs to perform. Some examples are: (a) calculating sales tax, (b) totaling an order, and (c) inputting customer data. Procedure-oriented languages must be instructed line-by-line, from the start of the task, until task completion. The programmer decides the order in which the computer processes instructions, i.e., the correct sequence. Some examples of procedure-oriented languages are: (a) COBOL, (b) BASIC, and (c) C.

Object-oriented Languages

Object-oriented languages focus on objects that the program can use to accomplish its goal. These might be real-world objects, for example: (a) an employee time card, (b) a customer, or, (c) an employee paycheck. These objects can be used in more than one program, thereby promoting code reuse, which saves time and money. Some examples of object-oriented programming languages are: (a) C#, (b) Java, and (c) C++. These languages can also be used to create procedure-oriented programs.

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