The smallest piece of data that a computer can hold, is called a bit. A bit can only have one of two values, either 0 (off), or 1 (on). A bit can be referred to as binary data, as it only has two possible values.
Primary and Secondary Storage Measurements
Computers typically measure primary and secondary storage using the following table:
|Storage Type (1 unit)||Measurement|
This table can be extended further, to include even larger storage types. The bit is the foundation of all storage types. Larger storage types build off the smaller storage types. Larger data types are used to make it easier to conceptualize large measurements of bits. It’s easier to conceptualize 1 terabyte, as opposed to 8,000,000,000,000 bits.
Bytes can also be grouped into words. Modern computers typically use 4-byte, and 8-byte words, which are 32-bit (x86), and 64-bit (x64) systems, respectively.
Elementary Data Types
|Name (System)||Type (C#)||Size|
|16-bit Integer*||short | ushort||2 bytes|
|32-bit Integer*||int | uint||4 bytes|
|64-bit Integer*||long | ulong||8 bytes|
|Single-precision floating point number||float||4 bytes|
|Double-precision floating point number||double||8 bytes|
*Integer values can also be unsigned, which removes the ability to store negative integers, and increases the storage for positive integers, i.e.:
|Signed Short||-32,768 to 32,767|
|Unsigned Short||0 to 65,535|
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